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SG; Middle East; Iraq

SG: The SG briefed the SC today from Ramallah where he reiterated his message from today’s earlier press conference in Tel Aviv with Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu to: “Stop fighting. Start talking. And take on the root causes of the conflict.” The SG will continue travelling this week to Jordan and Saudi Arabia.

Middle East: The continuing Israeli-Palestinian conflict is now affecting aid as 77 UNRWA installations have been damaged and 100,000 people seek UNRWA’s shelter. The SG urged a viable two-state solution and an immediate ceasefire to begin addressing the underlying issues. At the SC’s open debate on the Middle East, US Ambassador Power reiterated the US commitment to secure a ceasefire agreement between Israel and Hamas and the US $47 million contribution to address the humanitarian emergency in Gaza (which was announced by Secretary Kerry yesterday).

Iraq: UNHCR reported more than 450 Christian families in Iraq have been displaced with little or no resources. UNHCR continues to assess the situation to meet the needs of those displaced.

UNIFIL: Major-General Luciano Portolano of Italy will take over as the Force Commander of the UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) on Thursday following Major-General Paolo Serra’s farewell bid to Lebanese authorities in Beirut today.

WFP: WFP reported that the surge of conflict in the first half of 2014 increased the program’s global air delivery of life-saving food and goods by fifty-fold with more than 90% of the supplies delivered to CAR, South Sudan, and Syria.

Girl Summit: UNICEF and the UK Government are hosting the first-ever Girl Summit to end female genital mutilation and child marriage as these practices deny girls the right to make their own decisions and reach their full potential according to a statement made by UNICEF’s Executive Director.

CAR: The three-day forum for peace talks in Brazzaville continue as the SG called for political coordination and unity in order to move toward reconciliation and stop the violence at yesterday’s convening of the forum.

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Inside the Fight Against Global Epidemics

What do Ebola in West Africa, cholera in South Sudan, MERS coronavirus in the Middle East and polio in Syria and Central Africa have in common? These are all current infectious disease outbreaks that the WHO is tracking throughout the world. With globalization, an outbreak that occurs in one corner of the globe can easily spread and impact the entire world. UN Dispatch talked with Keiji Fukuda, Assistant Director-General of Health Security with the WHO, and Scott F. Dowell of the US Centers for Disease Control about the challenges infectious diseases present today as well as what the international community is doing to combat the threat.

Global epidemics are nothing new; the most infamous one in modern history – the 1918 flu pandemic – is now believed to have originated in China but utilized the close quarters and supply routes of a world at war to spread to every habitable part of the world from remote Pacific islands to the Arctic, killing an estimated 50 million people. The 1918 pandemic is often called the last great plague but in a world where a person can board a plane and arrive on another continent within hours, the threat of a new pandemic is always a possibility.

As Dowell pointed out, the 2003 SARS outbreak served as a wakeup call for the international community to this threat. Due to the delay of the Chinese government in informing the WHO of a possible new infectious disease, SARS spread to neighboring countries and then North America far more rapidly than the global health community was prepared for. Once an infection is detected it becomes a battle against the clock to bring it under control to limit both its geographical spread but also its local impact. SARS demonstrated the deficiencies in the international system and shook countries out of their complacency.

Since then, the profile of the WHO has increased as new systems emerged to combat emerging threats from infectious disease. Two major lessons Fukuda outlined from the SARS outbreak is that no one can expect infections to stop at borders and no one can handle modern outbreaks alone. This makes effective partnerships – with both governments and public health organizations – key to any approach.

The importance of this is evident today with the Ebola epidemic impacting Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. Although the current strain is not the most fatal to ever emerge, the epidemic has now become the deadliest Ebola outbreak in history. Emerging in Guinea in December of last year, it wasn’t until March that it became apparent there was a new epidemic. By then, there were multiple hotspots throughout Guinea and the virus soon spread to Liberia and Sierra Leone. All three countries have a history of political instability with Liberia and Sierra Leone still emerging from years of civil war. As a result, the domestic health systems of all three countries remain incredibly fragile and unprepared for major crises. These domestic systems were particularly unprepared for an Ebola outbreak since this is the first time the disease has been detected in West Africa. Thus, while government has an important role to play, it will take multiple actors to bring the epidemic under control; it remains the responsibility of the WHO to coordinate the response and various health organizations to provide the support needed to government and domestic health officials.

Given the complexity of the current outbreak, Fukuda took the unusual step of personally visiting Guinea and Sierra Leone recently to evaluate the international response and talk with government officials. Although delayed, national leadership is emerging in each country and throughout the region to help stem the spread of the disease. A solution will not emerge overnight, Fukuda cautioned, but contrary to some reports there is hope as progress is made with community education and outreach, a central tenant in getting help quickly to those who need it most.

Going forward more effort is going into developing an effective framework for early detection and containment. Although the WHO member states agreed in 1995 for the need to update the International Health Regulations (IHR) for the first time since 1969, the SARS outbreak brought an increased urgency to the task. The new regulations, binding on all WHO member states since 2007, set out the rights and obligations of countries in reporting public health concerns as well as establishes the coordinating mechanisms utilized by the WHO.

The regulations marked a positive step forward, particularly in establishing means for member states to collaborate on possible threats and strengthen the capacity of all state through both technical and financial support. Such capacity building remains a serious obstacle for many, as Dowell estimated 80% of member states have yet to meet their obligations under the IHR.

For developing states, lack of qualified staff, limited budgets and “brain drain” account for some of this lag and are not issues that can instantly be addressed by any one nation. But a new Global Health Security Agenda launched earlier this year attempts to bridge that gap through public-private partnerships among key states, organizations and interested corporate parties. Dowell highlighted that pilot projects initiated under the agenda in Vietnam and Uganda to improve key capacities have seen real progress in just five months. If successful, these programs can help fortify the fragile domestic health systems of other developing states and bring us closer to creating a truly comprehensive approach to infectious disease surveillance, monitoring and containment for the better security of all.

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The Aid Diversion Dilemma

It is a sobering snapshot of the humanitarian challenge facing the international community: according to data released last week, funding for relief assistance has reached unprecedented heights — but remains far short of fulfilling the needs of those adversely affected by armed conflict and climate change around the world. The implication is that aid agencies simply need more money to tend to current calamities. But as a recent report by Medecins Sans Frontieres makes clear, the primary obstacles to humanitarian programming are not material or financial. They are logistical and political.

From Somalia to Sudan and South Sudan, from Ethiopia to Syria, from Myanmar to the Philippines, it has proven increasingly difficult to distribute humanitarian aid without it being restricted by — or diverted to — government officials, rebel groups, and other political actors. Aid diversion is nothing new. Alex de Waal has written extensively about the manipulation of disaster relief by state authorities responsible for “famine crimes” in East and Central Africa. But the problem seems to be intensifying, due to several reasons.

The first is demographic. Population growth and rapid urbanization in developing countries means that when violence erupts or a natural disaster hits, it exacerbates the vulnerability brought on by unplanned and misaligned growth, including poverty, crime, and disease. Second, greater mobility during periods of stability has translated into greater mobility during times of crisis. A record number of people have now been uprooted by armed conflict, and an increasing proportion of them are internally displaced. Unlike refugees, IDPs lack explicit international legal protection, and assisting them therefore depends on the cooperation of their own governments — often the very authorities responsible for the violence or instability that caused people to flee their homes in the first place.

These shifting displacement trends are a consequence of both the changing dynamics of conflict and the politics of asylum: while wars have become more localized, though still contagious, countries have tightened border controls to prevent people from becoming refugees. Syrians have been systematically denied entry into Jordan and Turkey, and authorities in Iraqi Kurdistan are restricting access to border crossings for civilians fleeing ISIS-held areas. The 100,000 Gaza residents that were ordered to leave their homes last week similarly have found nowhere else to go.

A third factor undermining the provision of humanitarian relief is that many needy populations are difficult to locate and track. An estimated 70 percent of Syrian refugees do not reside in camps, and a significant number have been doubly displaced — exiled from Syria to Iraq only to be uprooted by new violence. Potential beneficiaries blend into urban landscapes as easily as rebels blend into surrounding communities, and since the distribution of aid is meant to be impartial and non-discriminatory, it can be effectively siphoned off or used by local authorities for political purposes.

So what can be done? As the UN re-evaluates its peacekeeping apparatus, it should consider expanding the role of peacekeepers in aid delivery for IDPs.

At the same time, member states can pressure governments to open their borders and give refugees the legal right to work. Designated and accessible relief areas are critical for the efficient distribution of humanitarian supplies. More importantly, as demonstrated in a study released last month by the University of Oxford, refugee communities can be a boon to local economies. The Zaatari refugee camp in Jordan, for example, has become a working city. Donors can work with host governments to illuminate the potential benefits of refugee inflows, and provide the infrastructure support necessary to help exiled populations generate and maintain a viable economy.

Aid agencies should certainly not pull back from war zones. But with conflicts becoming more protracted — causing not only greater involuntary mobility but also involuntary immobility – rather than concentrating limited resources on getting supplies in, it may be more productive for humanitarian actors to focus on getting people out, while helping them build self-sustaining communities.

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Ban Ki Moon, John Kerry in Cairo for Gaza Talks.

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Relief Aid Promised for Gazans…”U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry flew to Cairo to join diplomatic efforts to resume a truce that last had been agreed to in November 2012. He will urge the militant Palestinian group to accept a cease-fire agreement offered by Egypt that would halt two weeks of fighting that has descended into war and killed at least 500 Palestinians and more than two-dozen Israelis. Kerry headed almost immediately into a meeting with U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon, where he announced the U.S. will send $47 million in humanitarian aid for tens of thousands of Palestinians who have fled their homes in Gaza to escape the violence. Kerry’s top aides warned, however, that achieving an immediate and lasting cease-fire would be difficult and he hoped to make any progress over the next several days to secure even a temporary pause in the bloodshed.” (Houston Chronicle http://bit.ly/1ySa1zU)

Peace Talks Kick off for CAR….Over 150 delegates from all sides of the fighting are represented at peace talks in Brazzaville Congo that started on Monday. Appeals for a ceasefire, however, were clearly not respected on the ground. There is not high hopes that these talks will succeed. “Central African Republic’s interim president appealed on Monday to Muslim Seleka rebels and ‘anti-balaka’ Christian militia to agree on a ceasefire at the start of talks in the neighbouring Congo Republic.The three-day forum in Brazzaville, mediated by Congolese President Denis Sassou Nguesso, aims to reach terms for a halt to hostilities and disarmament but will not address negotiations for a longer-term peace deal in the former French colony. (Reuters http://bit.ly/1rjoZfF)

Cool Job Opportunity of the Day: AirBnB (!) is looking for someone with experience in international emergency relief to help build their Global Disaster Response program. http://bit.ly/1yS2YqE

 Helene Gayle, CEO of CARE, USA…is Mark’s podcast guest this week. She discusses CARE’s work in South Sudan, her work fighting AIDS from the early 1980s, and the origins of the USA’s global response to the AIDS crisis. Global Dispatches Podcast http://bit.ly/1p1QcPp)

Africa

Religious leaders in Sierra Leone criticised the government’s handling of an Ebola outbreak that has killed 194 people in the West African country, saying a lack of information was prompting rural communities to shun medical help. (Reuters http://bit.ly/1p2aW9A)

Mozambique is discussing with its foreign coal mining partners ways to help them ride out depressed markets but will not be offering special tax breaks to ease the pain, its mineral resources minister said. (Reuters http://bit.ly/1nulPpo)

Abuse and poverty is driving children on to Uganda’s streets, where many claim to suffer even more at the hands of police. (Guardian http://bit.ly/1p2evg0)

Liberia: Four nurses working at the Phebe Hospital in Suakoko, Bong County, have reportedly contracted the Ebola virus, while the test result of the fifth nurse is yet to be released. (Heritage http://bit.ly/1p2gkK7)

For a growing number of Kenyan coffee farmers, an insurance plan that protects their harvest against losses to extreme weather and weather-related ailments is making coffee growing a less bitter experience. (Thompson Reuters Foundation http://bit.ly/1p2gGAd)

MENA

With over 85,000 Palestinians now displaced in Gaza, the UN shelters housing them are near capacity. Yet for the displaced fleeing violence between Israel and militant groups, there are few alternatives. (IRIN http://bit.ly/1p2bD2V)

Clashes between rival Libyan militias fighting for control of the capital’s international airport killed 47 people over the last week, Libya’s Health Ministry said, as violence in an eastern city killed five. (ABC http://abcn.ws/1ySbeag)

Italy’s navy said it rescued nearly 1,800 migrants in overcrowded boats in the Mediterranean over the weekend, and a merchant ship recovered five bodies from a sinking rubber raft off the coast of Libya. (Reuters http://bit.ly/1rjp8zz)

The economist behind a plan to unlock at least $380 billion worth of assets from Egypt’s black market says President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi must first restore another asset that has depreciated over the years: the trust of a wary public. (Reuters http://bit.ly/1rjpoPc)

Despite a comprehensive approach to combating HIV-AIDS, ignorance about the disease pervades Tunisian society. (Guardian http://bit.ly/1nukw9Q)

Asia

Some tribal elders in a city in northwest Pakistan have decreed that families fleeing a military offensive should not allow women to collect food aid, an elder said on Monday after Reuters saw him attacking women. (Reuters http://bit.ly/1rDQeAG)

The Red Cross Society of China deployed emergency teams and mobilised relief supplies to help communities battered by Super Typhoon Rammasun, described as the severest storm to hit the country in more than 40 years. (Red Cross http://bit.ly/1p1YWVK)

Medical officials in northern Pakistan say that almost all the 870,000 internally displaced people in KP are deeply traumatized by over a decade of war in the northern provinces, where they were caught in the crossfire between government forces and militants who crossed the border from Afghanistan into Pakistan’s Federally Administered Tribal Areas in 2001. (IPS http://bit.ly/1p2ackS)

Cambodia’s efforts to tackle HIV/AIDS over the past 15 years have won it praise, and put it well ahead of many other low-income countries. But some of those most involved in the fight against AIDS are worried that an array of challenges could see some of those gains undone. (VOA http://bit.ly/1nukRtb)

Twenty-eight people, including activists and a retired Catholic bishop, filed an impeachment complaint Monday against Philippine President Benigno Aquino III for his implementation of a major economic stimulus program that the Supreme Court has declared partly unconstitutional. (AP http://yhoo.it/1p2dSmN)

Thai media organizations called on the military government on Monday to ease restrictions after the junta said it would shut down news outlets putting out what it considers critical coverage. (Reuters http://yhoo.it/1p2e2ut)

Opinion/Blogs

Shouldn’t Humanitarian Aid Come First? (Campaign for Boring Development http://bit.ly/1qXT5mJ)

Redoubling efforts to fight stigma and discrimination key to ending AIDS (Devex http://bit.ly/1qXtri5)

Seeking Leadership & Innovation in Sustainable Development (IPS http://bit.ly/1rjoAK0)

GM scaremongering in Africa is disarming the fight against poverty (Guardian http://bit.ly/1p2bRa0)

LGBT rights in Africa – time to act (ODI http://huff.to/1nukq25)

Building partnerships to free the world’s children of intestinal worms (Development Progress http://bit.ly/1nuno6O)

Why Worry About the Politics of Nutrition? (Development Horizons http://bit.ly/1qXToOx)

Who Aids Whom? (Development Diaries http://bit.ly/1qXTtBN

Research/Reports

Targeted efforts to make food systems more efficient in key parts of the world could meet the basic calorie needs of 3 billion extra people and reduce the environmental footprint of agriculture without using additional land and water, researchers said. (AlertNet http://bit.ly/1p1YI0I)

Investment in HIV prevention research fell by 4%, to $1.26 billion in 2013, due to declining investments by the United States and European government donors, changes in the international development landscape and changes in the pipeline of HIV prevention products in various stages of development and implementation. (Press Release)

A cloud of mistrust hangs over relations between business and the humanitarian community, the result of decades of mutual suspicion. Aid workers stereotype the private sector as profiteering and unscrupulous; business people write off international agencies as bloated and inefficient. (IRIN http://bit.ly/1rjpW7M)

One of the major concerns of the gathering of 12,000 AIDS activists, scientists and people living with HIV is how the criminalization of groups at high risk of HIV – such as gay men, sex workers and transgender people – is threatening progress in the global effort to fight AIDS. (Reuters http://bit.ly/1p2gO2O)


The effects of an HIV and AIDS project on migrants in Nepal, Bangladesh and India findings from a quasi-experimental study (ODI http://bit.ly/1u8nS69)

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SG; Ukraine; Middle East

SG: The SG arrived in Cairo today where he will meet with the Foreign Minister, President el-Sisi and US Secretary of State Kerry to promote the Egypt-initiated ceasefire in the Middle East. Spokesman Dujarric told reporters today that “the overriding messages that [the SG] brings is, first, that the violence must stop, and needs to stop now.” Over the weekend, the SG held meetings in Doha and Kuwait City. While in Doha, he met with President Abbas of the Palestinian Authority. The SG is expected back in NY by the end of the week.

Ukraine: The SC unanimously adopted a resolution to condemn the downing of Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 in Ukraine and to ensure that armed groups provide safe access to the crash site for an independent international investigation. During the SC’s meeting today, US Ambassador Power condemned the actions of the separatists and called on Russia to use their leverage with the separatists to lay down their arms and leave the site to international experts—“if Russia is not part of the solution, it will continue to be part of the problem.”

Middle East: OCHA reported 60 Palestinian casualties this weekend, making it the deadliest period since the recent escalation of conflict. More than 100,000 people remain displaced and 84,000 reside in UNRWA schools. Humanitarian agencies continue to provide necessary supplies as WFP and UNRWA delivered emergency assistance to 50,000 people in the last 24 hours. The SG continues to call for an immediate ceasefire.

Iraq: The SG condemned the persecution of minority communities in Iraq by the Islamic State and associated armed groups which forced tens of thousands of ethnic and religious minority groups to seek refuge. The SRSG for Iraq restated the UN’s commitment to meet the needs of those displaced.

South Sudan: The SG expressed concern regarding today’s attack by the Sudan People’s Liberation Army in Opposition forces on Nassir. He called on all parties to the conflict to stop the violence and seek peaceful resolution.

Iran: In accordance with Iran’s deal with the P5+1 (Germany) to curb its nuclear energy program, the IAEA reported that Iran destroyed its enriched uranium stockpile. The deal was set to expire Sunday, but the six world powers and Iran agreed to extend talks until November in the hopes of further containing Iran’s nuclear program.

Peacekeeping: The USG for Peacekeeping Operations will visit Nepal, Bangladesh, and India this week to thank the countries for their contributions to UN Peacekeeping Missions around the world.

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image credit: French defense ministry

Peace Talks Kick Off for the Central African Republic

The path to reconciliation in the Central African Republic will be going through Brazzaville, Congo, as regional leaders and international mediators are meeting alongside Central African groups to help broker a peace process and forge a path forward for mending the country’s socio-political scene, shattered as a result of the ongoing crisis.

French Defense Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian, during a wide-ranging interview with French media, spoke about the current situation in the Central African Republic. “There is a need for Central Africans themselves to find their own reconciliation, which is extremely challenging given the long, complex histories of hatred and distrust” that exist as part of the fabric of the nation, Le Drian explained. From the French perspective, the involvement of regional leaders in supporting the peace process and organizing peace talks in Brazzaville will allow for a cease-fire and a reconciliation process to take root.

When pressed by journalists about an exit strategy for France in the CAR, Le Drian said that UN troops will “arrive starting September 15″, with a political-military peacekeeping role in the context of an evolving democratic process. Le Drian, quite comfortable with France’s role and accomplishments since its involvement in the crisis in December 2013, told the press that Operation Sangaris – the French mission in the CAR – helped “avoid mass massacres”, pacified Bangui, de-enclaved Cameroon, and is working towards restoring security in the eastern part of the country. Of course, the reality on the ground suggests that in spite of these major advancements, there is still widespread insecurity and chronic violence, as well as a complex and devastating humanitarian situation affecting the hundreds of thousands of internally displaced people and refugees.

As the peace talks begin in Brazzaville, the common ground that is meant to emerge appears out of reach. While CAR’s transitional government is represented and actively participating, the two critical groups – the Seleka and anti-balaka – are not only at odds with each other, but also internally divided and lacking a strong, unified voice to represent their interests. Short-lived CAR head of state Michel Djotodia, who lead the Seleka to power in early 2013  - but was forced to step down less than a year later under international pressure – was re-elected in absentia  last week as head of the group during a general assembly in north-eastern town of Birao in CAR. Djotodia deputies and Seleka “founding military commanders” Nourredine Adam and Mohamed Dhaffane, were also re-affirmed as leaders of the movement, according to a spokesperson. The general assembly in Birao saw not only the re-election of Djotodia, but also the appointment of a 26-person political bureau for the group, and its renaming: Seleka is now the “Popular Front for the Rebirth of Central African Republic.”

As Djotodia remains in exile in Benin and has not been formally invited, and many Seleka leaders – including Nourredine Adam – are under UN travel bans, Dhaffane is representing the group in Brazzaville. On the anti-balaka side, their national coordinator Patrice-Edouard Ngaïssona is representing the group in Brazzaville. But in spite of his title, Mr. Ngaïssona is not speaking on behalf of the various, disparate, unorganized and independent anti-balaka factions across the CAR. Even if the Seleka and anti-balaka are able to negotiate during these talks, it is unclear whether all fighting factions in CAR will follow their lead and respect whatever agreement might emerge. As the meetings began this morning in Brazzaville, inter-communal violence once again shook the streets of Bangui, as Seleka and anti-balaka fighters fired shots in the capital city. 

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