The Security Council adopted a sanctions resolution on Iran, with a vote of 12 -2, with one abstention. The outliers, as expected, were Brazil and Turkey which recently negotiated a fuel swap deal with Iran. Apparently the P-5 found that deal insufficient, so they imposed a new round of sanctions today.  According to a release from the United States Mission to the UN, this is what the resolution specifically targets:

1)      Ban on Iranian certain nuclear and missile investment abroad.
Iran is prohibited from investing in sensitive nuclear activities
abroad, like uranium enrichment and reprocessing activities, where it
could acquire nuclear technology and know-how, as well as activities
involving ballistic missiles capable of delivering nuclear weapons.  The
ban also applies to investment in uranium mining.

2)      Conventional arms ban.  States are prohibited from selling or in
any way transferring to Iran eight broad categories of heavy weapons
(battle tanks, armored combat vehicles, large caliber artillery systems,
combat aircraft, attack helicopters, warships, missiles or missile
systems).  States are similarly prohibited from providing technical or
financial assistance for such systems, or spare parts.  States are also
to exercise vigilance and restraint in supplying any other arms or
related materiel to Iran.

3)      Ban on ballistic missile activities.  Iran is prohibited from
undertaking any activity related to ballistic missiles capable of
carrying nuclear weapons and States are required to take all necessary
measure to prevent the transfer of related technology or technical
assistance.

4)      Additional items banned for transfer.  The resolution updates
and adds to the list of technical items related to nuclear and missile
proliferation that are banned for transfer to and from Iran.

5)      New cargo inspection framework. Iran is subject to a new regime
for inspection of suspicious cargo to detect and stop Iran’s smuggling.
States should inspect any vessel on their territory suspected of
carrying prohibited cargo, including banned conventional arms or
sensitive nuclear or missile items.  States are also expected to
cooperate in such inspections on the high seas.

6)      New procedures to deal with contraband items.  Once prohibited
items are found, States are now obligated to seize and dispose of the
items.

7)      Ban on bunkering services.  States are required not to provide
critical support services (e.g., fuel, water) to ships suspected of
carrying prohibited cargo.

8)      Measures to restrict the Islamic Republic of Iran Shipping Lines
(IRISL) and Iran Air’s cargo division.  States must require their
nationals to exercise vigilance over IRISL, a known sanctions violator.
Three IRISL-related companies will have their assets frozen.  States are
requested to report any information on activities by IRISL and Iran’s
Air’s cargo division to evade sanctions, including by renaming vessels.

9)      New tools to block proliferation finance.  States are called
upon to prevent any financial service — including insurance or
reinsurance — and freeze any asset that could contribute to Iran’s
proliferation.  This broad language will help states take action when
there are suspected financial links to Iran’s banned nuclear activities.

10)  Vigilance over all Iran’s companies.  States are required to ensure
their nationals exercise vigilance when doing business with any Iranian
firm, including IRGC and IRISL, to make sure such business does not
contribute to Iran’s proliferation.

11)  New banking measures.  States are called upon to prohibit on their
territories new banking relationships with Iran, including the opening
of any new branches of Iranian banks, joint ventures and correspondent
banking relationships, if there is a suspected link to proliferation.
States also should prohibit their own financial institutions from
opening branches in Iran if there is a suspected link to proliferation.

12)  New measures to limit the role of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard
Corps (IRGC).   The resolution highlights the IRGC’s role in
proliferation and requires states to mandate that businesses exercise
vigilance over all transactions involving the IRGC.  Fifteen
IRGC-related companies linked to proliferation will have their assets
frozen.

13)  Targeted sanctions on specific individuals and entities.  Forty
Iranian companies and one individual will be subject to an asset freeze.
The individual — the head of a critical nuclear research program —
will also be subject to a travel ban.  Thirty-five additional
individuals previously subject to “travel vigilance” will now be subject
to a travel ban.

14)  Appointment of a UN sanctions monitoring panel.  A UN “Panel of
Experts” will be established to monitor states’ implementation of the
sanctions, report on sanctions violations and recommend ways to
continually improve enforcement.

Discussion

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