The Security Council adopted a sanctions resolution on Iran, with a vote of 12 -2, with one abstention. The outliers, as expected, were Brazil and Turkey which recently negotiated a fuel swap deal with Iran. Apparently the P-5 found that deal insufficient, so they imposed a new round of sanctions today. According to a release from the United States Mission to the UN, this is what the resolution specifically targets:
1) Ban on Iranian certain nuclear and missile investment abroad. Iran is prohibited from investing in sensitive nuclear activities abroad, like uranium enrichment and reprocessing activities, where it could acquire nuclear technology and know-how, as well as activities involving ballistic missiles capable of delivering nuclear weapons. The ban also applies to investment in uranium mining.
2) Conventional arms ban. States are prohibited from selling or in any way transferring to Iran eight broad categories of heavy weapons (battle tanks, armored combat vehicles, large caliber artillery systems, combat aircraft, attack helicopters, warships, missiles or missile systems). States are similarly prohibited from providing technical or financial assistance for such systems, or spare parts. States are also to exercise vigilance and restraint in supplying any other arms or related materiel to Iran.
3) Ban on ballistic missile activities. Iran is prohibited from undertaking any activity related to ballistic missiles capable of carrying nuclear weapons and States are required to take all necessary measure to prevent the transfer of related technology or technical assistance.
4) Additional items banned for transfer. The resolution updates and adds to the list of technical items related to nuclear and missile proliferation that are banned for transfer to and from Iran.
5) New cargo inspection framework. Iran is subject to a new regime for inspection of suspicious cargo to detect and stop Iran’s smuggling. States should inspect any vessel on their territory suspected of carrying prohibited cargo, including banned conventional arms or sensitive nuclear or missile items. States are also expected to cooperate in such inspections on the high seas.
6) New procedures to deal with contraband items. Once prohibited items are found, States are now obligated to seize and dispose of the items.
7) Ban on bunkering services. States are required not to provide critical support services (e.g., fuel, water) to ships suspected of carrying prohibited cargo.
8) Measures to restrict the Islamic Republic of Iran Shipping Lines (IRISL) and Iran Air’s cargo division. States must require their nationals to exercise vigilance over IRISL, a known sanctions violator. Three IRISL-related companies will have their assets frozen. States are requested to report any information on activities by IRISL and Iran’s Air’s cargo division to evade sanctions, including by renaming vessels.
9) New tools to block proliferation finance. States are called upon to prevent any financial service — including insurance or reinsurance — and freeze any asset that could contribute to Iran’s proliferation. This broad language will help states take action when there are suspected financial links to Iran’s banned nuclear activities.
10) Vigilance over all Iran’s companies. States are required to ensure their nationals exercise vigilance when doing business with any Iranian firm, including IRGC and IRISL, to make sure such business does not contribute to Iran’s proliferation.
11) New banking measures. States are called upon to prohibit on their territories new banking relationships with Iran, including the opening of any new branches of Iranian banks, joint ventures and correspondent banking relationships, if there is a suspected link to proliferation. States also should prohibit their own financial institutions from opening branches in Iran if there is a suspected link to proliferation.
12) New measures to limit the role of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC). The resolution highlights the IRGC’s role in proliferation and requires states to mandate that businesses exercise vigilance over all transactions involving the IRGC. Fifteen IRGC-related companies linked to proliferation will have their assets frozen.
13) Targeted sanctions on specific individuals and entities. Forty Iranian companies and one individual will be subject to an asset freeze. The individual — the head of a critical nuclear research program — will also be subject to a travel ban. Thirty-five additional individuals previously subject to “travel vigilance” will now be subject to a travel ban.
14) Appointment of a UN sanctions monitoring panel. A UN “Panel of Experts” will be established to monitor states’ implementation of the sanctions, report on sanctions violations and recommend ways to continually improve enforcement.